11 amazing facts that make you fat
11 amazing facts that make you fat
Eating too much and not exercising may be the main reason for obesity, but it turns out they are not the only one Research shows that from removing the tonsils to having a series of "fat truths," some of the most unexpected truths can increase your weight.
According to data released by the World Health Organization (who), today, there is one obese or overweight person in every four adults, so every obesity factor is very important in the fight against excess fat. Here are 11 amazing facts that will make you fat.
Face-1, infected with a cold virus
Children exposed to a common cold strain called adenovirus-36 are more likely to be obese than those who are not, according to research published in September in the American Journal of Pediatrics. Adenovirus-36 is a common virus that infects the respiratory system and eyes. It can be transmitted by coughing, sneezing and touching hands in dogs.
Research from the University of California, San Diego, shows that adenovirus-36 contains a unique gene that makes stem cells grow into fat cells. In a study of 124 children, nearly 80% of those exposed to adenovirus 36 were obese children. Their average weight was 50 pounds (23 kg) more than that of children who were not exposed to adenovirus 36. In this experiment, it was found that the development and differentiation rate of immature adipocytes infected with adenovirus-36 was much faster than that under normal conditions. The researchers believe that this may be the pathological mechanism of adenovirus-36 leading to obesity in children.
Face-2, air conditioning environment
According to Ashley buwana, a professor of Harvard Medical School, recently published in the International Journal of obesity, if people stay in an air-conditioned environment for a long time, their metabolism will be relatively slow; in addition, when people are greedy for cool and look forward to the air-conditioned room for a long time, the less they exercise, the less energy consumption they consume; in addition, the air circulation of the air-conditioned environment is poor, indoor 2 The concentration of carbon oxide is often on the high side, the oxygen content is insufficient, and the oxygen is reduced, which makes fat and glucose not easy to burn; under the comprehensive factors, it is easier to accumulate fat and get fat when staying in the air conditioning environment for a long time.
Professor Ashley's follow-up study found that in the southern region with the highest obesity rate in the United States, the proportion of air-conditioned households increased from 47% in 1997 to 97% in 2017; the obesity rate in the region increased from 19% in 1997 to 43% in 2017.
Face-3, working mom
Children with working mothers are more likely to be obese than those whose mothers stay at home, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of epidemiology. Working women's children are six times more likely to be overweight and obese than other children. Researchers believe that eating fatty ready to eat food and snacks after school is a key reason for children's obesity.
The Maryland Institute of medical nutrition team analyzed the height and weight data of 5000 children born between 2000 and 2015 at the age of 3-13, as well as the work of their parents. The results show that nearly 56% of working women have children with obesity and other problems; 28% of the children whose mothers work part-time are obese; and only 13% of the children of housewives are obese. If a mother works 10 hours more a week, her child is 10% more likely to be overweight by the age of three. According to the research team, the longer a mother works, the higher her child's BMI; this is because long hours of work make it difficult for mothers to prepare healthy food for their children and give them more opportunities to eat unhealthy food.
Fact-4, lack of sleep
Children who often sleep too little for play or other reasons are more likely to gain weight than those who get enough sleep. This is the result of a 20-year follow-up survey of 20000 American children by herb Kelleher, a professor at Northwestern University.
The study, which began in 1996 and ended in 2016, surveyed 22810 children aged 3 to 12 across the United States. After analyzing and sorting out the data obtained in the past 20 years, Professor Kelleher wrote a paper and published it in the American Journal of child development. According to Professor Kelleher, the study asked parents to record in detail the changes of sleep time and weight of their children, including the length of sleep time, when to sleep, when to get up and the changes of height and weight. When the researchers analyzed the data, they took into account various factors, such as race, family economic conditions, parents' cultural level, and so on. Finally, they came to the conclusion that children who slept less were indeed more likely to gain weight: among children aged 3-8, the probability of gaining weight by sleeping an hour more decreased by 30% - 36%, while that of children aged 8-13 was 30% - 34%.
Sleep experts say that children aged 5-12 should sleep 10-11 hours a day, and teenagers should sleep 8-9 hours a day. Professor Kelleher's data show that a 7-year-old child sleeps less than 10 hours a day, and a 14-year-old child gets fat less than 8.5 hours a day.
As you know, tonsillectomy is the most common operation in children, and researchers from the University of St. Louis found that children who had tonsillectomy gained more weight after the operation than those who did not. Obese children have soared in the past 20 years, with the latest data showing that about 33% of American children are overweight and 17% are obese. Obese children increase the risk of becoming obese adults, who are prone to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Children with tonsillectomy, whether or not they also have adenoids removed, are at increased risk of postoperative obesity. In this study, 795 children aged 0-18 years were followed up. They were either normal or overweight and underwent tonsillectomy or tonsillectomy adenoidectomy. The body mass index of 126 children in the first group increased by 5.5% ~ 8.2%; the standard weight score of 419 children in the second group increased by 46% ~ 100%; in the third group, 50% ~ 75% of children gained weight after operation. Three studies were conducted in each group, each with a different definition of overweight and a different follow-up time.
There may be multiple mechanisms for weight gain in children who have their tonsils removed. Experts said that dysphagia or swallowing pain may cause children with chronic tonsillitis to reduce their calorie intake. When the tonsils are removed, these children can take in more calories; the recovery of surgery will also encourage parents to let their children eat more, which will further increase their calorie intake and weight.
Face-6, turn on the light at night
According to a new study from the National Institutes of Health published in the October issue of the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, keeping the lights on all night can add a few inches to your waistline. The large-scale study of more than 40000 women, through a five-year follow-up survey, found that turning on the light at night can lead to obesity in women, and turning off the light before sleeping can reduce the risk of obesity in women.
Another study led by manfrey de Koehler, a professor of medicine at Columbia University, also showed that for eight consecutive weeks, mice exposed to dark light at night gained 50% more weight than those in total darkness at night, although all mice had the same food and physical activity. Professor manfrey said the results also apply to people who often eat late at night.
Professor manfrey pointed out that light at night is common, such as street lights, store neon lights and other light sources in the bedroom can inhibit the sleep hormone melatonin and 24-hour circadian rhythm. However, humans have long been genetically adapted to the natural environment of sunlight and darkness at night, and exposure to artificial light at night may change hormones and other physiological processes, thus increasing the risk of obesity and other health conditions.
Face-7, have an old mother
Many studies have shown that older mothers are more likely to have obese children. A recent study in the journal Archives of childhood diseases found that children born to women 30 years old or older have 2.6 to 2.8 percent more body fat than children born to women under 25 years old.
A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2015 found that girls whose mothers gave birth after the age of 35 had a higher obesity rate at the age of 9-10 than girls whose mothers gave birth at or under the age of 21.
Face-8, exposure to environmental pollutants
According to research published in the Journal of food science and nutrition review and the International Journal of obesity, pollution may have an impact on your body's metabolism. Endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A in plastics and the flame retardant PBBs, have been found to be linked to obesity by interfering with hormone signals, the study said. Pesticides that affect hormone synthesis and metabolism can also enter the human body through the food chain.
On the other hand, Dr. mark beckhoe, director of the basic medical center of New York State University, pointed out that pollutants such as PM2.5, second-hand smoke and dust in the environment can also carry some chemicals that can cause metabolic disorders such as human endocrine, leading to obesity. For example, indoor dust is not only mixed with dandruff, pollen and other small particles from the surrounding environment, but also contains endocrine disruptors (EDCs) that affect the changes of hormones in the body. Once the hormone secretion of human body is disordered, it will disturb the normal metabolism of substances, promote fat cells to accumulate more triglycerides and cause obesity.
Face-9, your genes
According to two studies published in the US journal of natural genetics in November, scientists have found 18 new genetic markers that may play a role in obesity, as well as 13 new markers that can determine whether fat accumulates in the waist or buttocks. Many of these markers are in or near genes previously unrelated to obesity, and by understanding the role of these genes, scientists may be able to find out why different people are obese, the researchers said.
The University of Maryland team used genome-wide association analysis to analyze 32000 people, screened out a large number of obesity related variants, and obtained six new obesity genes. In the latest issue of natural genetics, these six newly discovered genes are analyzed: tmem18, kctd15, gnpda2, SH2B1, mtch2, and negr1. Professor Soren snetk of the University of Maryland research team said: the six newly discovered genes are all active in brain cells and control obesity by affecting the nerve center. Professor snicker said that he would further study the function of these six genes through other ways, and finally find out whether diet change or physical exercise can most effectively control obesity.
Fact-10. Mothers who eat high fat food during pregnancy
Researchers from the University of Cincinnati and the Georgia medical school found that according to a study published in the Journal of the American Federation of experimental biology societies in 2019, mothers who ate a high-fat diet were more likely to give birth to obese mice than mothers who ate a normal diet, and being overweight at birth was a risk factor for future obesity.
Yale University researchers recently published a research report in the journal Cell, pointing out that experiments show that some neurons in the hypothalamus (an important brain area regulating metabolism) of mice born from mothers who drink high-fat food are abnormal. These mice were more likely to be overweight, obese or diabetic than the offspring of normal eating mothers. The researchers think the findings may explain why the offspring of obese parents are more prone to obesity.
Researchers at the Georgia School of medicine believe the baby mice are oversized because the fat their mothers take in can cause the placenta to provide too much nutrition for the fetus. The researchers found that if pregnant women's diet contains high-fat food, it may change the brain molecular and cellular mechanism of offspring, which may lead to offspring more prone to obesity or diabetes.
Face-11, your medicine
Some drugs that control or prevent depression, diabetes, high blood pressure and unwanted pregnancy can lead to weight gain and obesity. * taking corticosteroids, insulin and antipsychotic drugs not only cause water and sodium retention, but also affect the metabolic function of the human body. Make protein, fat, carbohydrate metabolism disorder, weight gain, even cause obesity.
According to a recent study published in the Journal of food science and nutrition review, between 1998 and 2018, the use of psychotropic drugs, especially antidepressants, increased by about 27% in the United States, high blood pressure drugs called beta blockers and drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes increased by 36%, while the proportion of obese people in the United States increased by 30% in the past 20 years Above.
American Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and metabolism, No. 11, 2019
Author: Julia bridges, associate editor of clinical health guidelines